||CA. 7000 BCE
Baalbek, Lebanon, is the located in the Bekaa valley in the Lebanese mountains, about 53 miles (85 km ) northeast of Beirut, Lebanon. The area has been settled for over 9,000 years. After Alexander the Great conquered the Near East in 334 BCE, the existing settlement was named Heliopolis. Beginning during the reign of the Roman emperor Augustus, in the last quarter of the 1st century BCE, and over a two centuries (reign of Philip the Arab), the Romans built a temple complex in Baalbek consisting of three temples: Jupiter, Bacchus and Venus. The Roman temples were built on top of earlier ruins that formed a raised plaza. The plaza was built from twenty-four monoliths, the largest weighing over 800 tons.[c] The Romans built a fourth temple dedicated to Mercury on a nearby hill. Today Baalbek is a UNESCO World Heritage Site. The city’s population is approximately 72,000 and it hosts the annual Baalbeck International Festival.[a][b]
◊ History of Baalbek, Lebanon
◊ History of Lebanon
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History of Baalbek, Lebanon
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History of Lebanon
I am still doing research on this history of the Lebanon.
1500 - 1699
1700 - 1899
- 2nd millennium BC; earliest prehistoric cultures of Lebanon, such as the Qaraoun culture gave rise to the civilization of the Canaanite period.
- 8800 and 7000 BC; Byblos is beleived to be first settled. Today it is believed by many to be the oldest continuously-inhabited city in the world.
- 1400 BC; The height of the Canaanite town of Ugarit.
- 1200 BC; Phoenician invent the alphabet and the Tyrian Purple which was a major component in their trade.
- 1200 BC; A crisis led to the Bronze Age collapse. Cities all around the eastern Mediterranean were sacked within a span of a few decades by assorted raiders.
- 842 BC; Shalmaneser III devastates the territory of Damascus; Palestine and the Phoenician cities send tribute.
- 813 BC; Carthage is founded by Phoenician.
- 774 BC; The reign of king Pygmalion of Tyre ends.
- 739 BC; Hiram II becomes king of Tyre.
- 730 BC; Mattan II succeeds Hiram II as king.
- 724 BC; The Assyrians under king Shalmaneser V start a four-year siege of Tyre that ends in 720 BC.
- 710 BC; Judah, Tyre and Sidon revolt against Assyria.
- 701 BC; The Assyrian siege of Tyre by king Sennacherib.
- 663 BC; The Assyrian siege of Tyre by king Ashurbanipal.
- 587 BC; The region is annexed to the Babylonian empire, while Jerusalem fell into their hands.
- 586 BC; The Babylonians under king Nebuchadnezzar II lay siege to Tyre for thirteen years without success. Later a compromise peace was made in which Tyre had to pay tribute to the Babylonians. (to 573 BC)
- 539 BC; Cyrus the Great conquered Phoenicia.
- 350 BC; A rebellion in Sidon led by Tennes was crushed by Artaxerxes III, and its destruction was dramatically described by Diodorus Siculus. (to 345 BC)
- 332 BC; Alexander the Great took Tyre following the city's siege. After Alexander's death Phoenicia witnessed a succession of Hellenistic rulers: Laomedon (323 BC), Ptolemy I (320 BC), Antigonus II (315 BC), Demetrius (301 BC), and Seleucus (296 BC).
- 315 BC; Alexander's former general Antigonus I Monophthalmus begins his own siege of Tyre, taking the city a year later.
- 286 BC; Phoenicia (except for Aradus) fell to the Ptolemies of Egypt.
- 197 BC; Phoenicia along with Syria reverted to the Seleucids, and the region became increasingly Hellenized, although Tyre actually became autonomous in 126 BC, followed by Sidon in 111 BC.
- 140 BC; Beirut was taken and destroyed by Diodotus Tryphon in his contest with Antiochus VII Sidetes for the throne of the Seleucid monarchy. It was later named Laodicea in Phoenicia.
- 82 BC; Syria, including Phoenicia, were seized by king Tigranes the Great who was later defeated by Lucullus. (to 69 BC)
- 65 BC; Pompey finally incorporated Phoenicia as part of the Roman province of Syria.
- 64 BC; Beirut was conquered by Agrippa and the city was renamed in honour of the emperor's daughter, Julia; its full name became Colonia Julia Augusta Felix Berytus.
- 27 BC; The Pax Romana period, inhabitants of the principal Phoenician cities of Byblos, Sidon, and Tyre were granted Roman citizenship, while economic and intellectual activities flourished. (to AD 180)
- 20; Beirut's school of law was founded, it later became widely known in the surrounding region. Two of Rome's most famous jurists, Papinian and Ulpian (both natives of Phoenicia), were taught at the law school under the Severan emperors.
- 50; Saint Paul of Tarsus begins his third mission and preaches in Tyre.
- 50; Saint Paul of Tarsus begins his third mission and preaches in Tyre.
- 451; The Maronites, a Christian community named after Saint John Maron sought refuge in the mountains of Lebanon.
- 551; Beirut is destroyed by an earthquake and tsunami. About 30,000 were killed in the city alone and, along the Phoenician coast, total casualties were close to 250,000.
- 630; The Marada, a group of autonomous Maronite communities, settled in Mount Lebanon and the surrounding highlands following the conquest of Syria by the Arab caliphate.
- 632; Calling for a jihad against non-Muslims, Muhammad's successor, Caliph Abu Bakr, brought Islam to the area surrounding Lebanon(to 634).
- 661; After the Battle of Yarmuk, Caliph Umar appointed the Arab Muawiyah I, founder of the Umayyad dynasty, as governor of Syria, an area that included present-day Lebanon.
- 667; Muawiyah negotiated an agreement with Constantine IV, the Byzantine emperor, whereby he agreed to pay Constantine an annual tribute in return for the cessation of Marada incursions.
- 670; Callinicus of Heliopolis, a Byzantine chemist from Heliopolis, invents the Greek fire in Constantinople.
- 759; An abortive rebellion of Lebanese mountaineers against the Abbasid rule after the harsh treatment of people living in the Lebanese-Syrian region.
- 960; Prince 'Allaqa of Tyre proclaimed his independence from the Abbasids and coined money in his own name.
- 970; The Fatimides settled in Egypt and extended their authority to the costal region of Bilad al-Sham and Damascus.
- 986; Under the Fatimid Caliph Al-Hakim bi-Amr Allah, a new religion was born and spread by a man called Ad-Darazi. This was the beginning of the Druze religion and its expansion in several Lebanese regions.
- 1109; The Crusaders capture Tripoli and transform the city and its surrounding regions into a county. It was originally held by Bertrand of Toulouse as a vassal of Baldwin I of Jerusalem.
- 1110; Beirut and Sidon are captured.
- 1124; Tyre resisted the raids but finally capitulated after a long siege.
- 1179; The Battle of Marj Ayyun took place on 10 June, where an Ayyubid army commanded by Saladin defeated a Crusader army led by King Baldwin IV of Jerusalem.
- 1182; The Battle of Belvoir Castle in which a Crusader force led by King Baldwin IV of Jerusalem sparred inconclusively with an Ayyubid army from Egypt commanded by Saladin. The theatre of operations included Eilat, the Transjordan, Galilee and Beirut (which witnessed a siege by Saladin that ended in August of the same year).
- 1187; Saladin conquers virtually all of the Kingdom of Jerusalem with the exception of Tyre, which held out under Conrad of Montferrat.
- Lionheart signed a treaty with Saladin, restoring the Kingdom of Jerusalem to a coastal strip between Jaffa and Beirut.
- 1260; The county of Tripoli becomes a vassal state of the Mongol Empire.
- 1289; The county of Tripoli falls into the hands of the Mamluks after the attack of Egyptian Sultan Qalawun in March.
- 1291; The Shia Muslims and Druze, in Lebanon, rebelled against the Mamluks who were busy fighting the European Crusaders and Mongols.
- 1308; The rebellion was crushed by the Mamluks.
1900 - 1999
- 1799; Bashir II declines to assist the siege of Acre by Napoleon and Jezzar Pasha. Unable to conquer Acre, Napoleon returned to Egypt, and the death of Jezzar Pasha in 1804 removed Bashir's principal opponent in the area.
- 1831; Bashir II breaks away from the Ottoman Empire, allies with Muhammad Ali of Egypt and assists Muhammad Ali's son, Ibrahim Pasha, in another siege of Acre. This siege lasted seven months, the city falling on 27 May 1832. The Egyptian army, with assistance from Bashir's troops, also attacked and conquered Damascus on 14 June 1832.
- 1840; After Muhammad Ali's rejection of the requests of the Convention of London of 1840 signed on 15 June 1840, Ottoman and British troops landed on the Lebanese coast on 10 September 1840. Faced with this combined force, Muhammad Ali retreated, and on 14 October 1840, Bashir II surrendered to the British and went into exile.
- 1841; Conflicts between the Druze and the Maronite Christians exploded. A Maronite revolt against the Feudal class erupted, and lasted until 1858.
- 1860; A full scale war erupted between Maronites and Druze. Napoleon III of France sent 7,000 troops to Beirut and helped impose a partition: The Druze control of the territory was recognised as the fact on the ground, and the Maronites were forced into an enclave, arrangements ratified by the concert of Europe in 1861.
2000 - 2013
- 1902, January 30; Japan signs the Anglo-Japanese Alliance. The alliance was renewed and extended in scope in 1905 and 1911, before its demise in 1921. It was officially terminated in 1923.
- 1914; After the abolishment of Lebanon's semiautonomous status, Jamal Pasha militarily occupies Lebanon.
- 1915; Jamal Pasha initiates a blockade of the entire eastern Mediterranean coast. Lebanon witnessed thousands of deaths from widespread famine and plagues.
- 1916, 6 May; Turkish authorities publicly executed 21 Syrians and Lebanese in Damascus and Beirut, respectively, for alleged anti-Turkish activities.
- 1918; British general Edmund Allenby and Faysal I, son of Sharif Hussein of Mecca, moved into Palestine with British and Arab forces, thus opening the way for the occupation of Lebanon.
- 1920, Feburary; France takes control over Lebanese territory after the San Remo conference. Under the Balfour Declaration, the British government had undertaken to favour the establishment of a Jewish national home in Palestine without prejudice to the civil and religious rights of existing non-Jewish communities in Palestine or the rights and political status enjoyed by Jewish in any other country. Britain received the mandate for Palestine and Iraq; France gained control of Syria, including present-day Lebanon.
- 1920, 25 April; After World War I, the League of Nations carves a geopolitical entity out of Ottoman Empire´s Southern Syria and placed under British civil administration in Palestine. The formal objective of the League of Nations Mandate system was to administer parts of the defunct Ottoman Empire, which had been in control of the Middle East since the 16th century, “until such time as they are able to stand alone”. This area would comprise all of what eventually became entually became Syria, Lebanon, Israel, Jordan, Palestine and Iraq.
- 1926, May; Lebanese Representative Council approves a constitution and the unified Lebanese Republic under the French mandate is declared.
- 1914 - 1920 The First World War. [More Information]
- Allied (Entente) Powers
France, British, Russia (1914-17), Italy (1915-18), United States (1917-18), Romania (1916-18), Japan, Serbia, Belgium, Greece (1917-18) and others
- Central Powers
Germany, Austria-Hungary, Ottoman Empire and Bulgaria (1915-18)
- 1914, October 17 - November 7: The Siege of Tsingtao.
- 1917, April 6: The US declares war on Germany.
- 1918, March 3: Russia and Germany sign an armistice at Brest-Litovsk.
- 1918, November 11: Armistice Day. At the 11th hour of the 11th day of the 11th month, Germany signs an armistice with the Allies. The war is officially over. More than 8.5 million have been killed and over twice as many wounded from across the globe. New technology has been created, America has risen to prominence as an economic power and new countries are forming in Europe and the Middle East.
- 1931, September 18, Japan invades Manchuria.
- 1935, October 3; The Second Italo-Abyssinian War. Italian armed forces from Eritrea invaded Ethiopia without a declaration of war. In response Ethiopia declares war on Italy. On October 7, the League of Nations declared Italy to be the aggressor, and started the slow process of imposing limited sanctions on Italy.
- 1935: The Soviet Union declares that the fascist states of Germany and Japan are the enemies.
- 1939 - 1945 World War II. [More Information]
- Axis powers (Germany, Italy, Japan, Hungary, Romania, Bulgaria) versus Allies (U.S., Britain, France, USSR, Australia, Belgium, Brazil, Canada, China, Denmark, Greece, Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Poland, South Africa, Yugoslavia).
- 1939: Germany invades Poland.
- 1941, December 7: Japan attacks Pearl Harbor.
- 1945, April 12: President Franklin D. Roosevelt dies at Warm Springs, Georgia.
- 1945, May 8: Victory in Europe, V-E Day.
- 1945, September 2: Victory over Japan, V-J Day Japanese sign surrender terms aboard battleship Missouri (BB-63).
- 1943, March; The foundations of the state are set out in an unwritten National Covenant which uses the 1932 census to distribute seats in parliament on a ratio of six-to-five in favor of Christians. This is later extended to other public offices. The president is to be a Maronite Christian, the Prime Minister a Sunni Muslim and the Speaker of the Chamber of Deputies a Shia Muslim.
- 1943, 22 November; Lebanon gains its independence after national and international pressure following the imprisonment of president Bechara El Khoury and other parliament members by the French.
- 1947, 29 November; the United Nations General Assembly recommended the adoption and implementation of the Plan of Partition with Economic Union .
- 1948; The state of Israel was declared. Palestinian refugees begin arriving in Lebanon.
- 1958; A civil war erupts but short lived after the intervention of 5,000 US Marines ordered by President Eisenhower upon the request of the Lebanese president Camille Chamoun.
- 1975 April - Phalangist gunmen ambush a bus in the Ayn-al-Rummanah district of Beirut, Lebanon, killing 27 of the mainly Palestinian passengers. The Phalangists claim that guerrillas had previously attacked a church in the same district.
- 1975 - 1990; The Lebanese Civil War.
- 1976, June; Syrian troops enter Lebanon to restore peace but also to curb the Palestinians, thousands of whom are killed in a siege of the Tel al-Zaatar camp by Syrian-allied Christian militias in Beirut. Arab states approve of the Syrian presence as an Arab Deterrent Force in October. The Syrian occupation of Lebanon ended in April 2005.
- 1978; In reprisal for a Palestinian attack, Israel launches a major invasion of southern Lebanon. It withdraws from all but a narrow border strip, which it hands over not to the United Nations Interim Force in Lebanon (UNIFIL) but to its proxy South Lebanon Army mainly Christian militia.
- 1982, June ; Following the attempted assassination of the Israeli ambassador to Britain by a Palestinian splinter group, Israel launches a full-scale invasion of Lebanon.
- 1982, September; Pro-Israeli president-elect Bachir Gemayel is assassinated. Israel occupies West Beirut, where the Phalangist militia kills thousands of Palestinians in the Sabra and Shatila camps. Bachir's elder brother Amine is elected president. Mainly US, French and Italian peacekeeping force arrives in Beirut.
- 1983, April; A Suicide attack on the US embassy kills 63 people and another in October on the headquarters of the peacekeepers kills 241 US and 58 French troops. US troops withdraw in 1984.
- 1985; Most Israeli troops withdraw apart from the SLA “security zone” in the south.
- 1990, 13 October; The Syrian air force attacks the Presidential Palace at Baabda and Aoun flees. This formally ends the civil war.
- 1990, 13 October; Troops invade the Baabda residential Palace and overthrow then Prime Minister General Michel Aoun, and ends with the peaceful revolution of more than one million protesters in Beirut central district, following the assassination of the Lebanese PM Rafik Hariri and the withdrawal of the Syrian troops.
- 2000; Israeli forces withdrawal from the South of Lebanon.
- 2005; The Syrian occupation of Lebanon ends. 
- 2006, July-August; The July War takes place between Hezbollah and Israel, with Israel launching a major military attack, bombing the southern suburbs of Beirut, the Lebanese airport and parts of southern Lebanon, in response to the capture of 2 Israeli soldiers by Hezbollah on 12 July. The conflict ends with the acceptance of the United Nations Security Council approved UN Resolution 1701 by both Israel and Lebanon. Israeli force withdraw back to the international borders. Even though the Resolution calls for the disarmament of Hezbollah, both the Lebanese government and UNIFIL have stated that they will not disarm Hezbollah.
- 2007, May-September; More than 300 people die during the siege of the Palestinian refugee camp Nahr al-Bared following clashes between Islamist militants and the military. 40,000 residents flee before the army gains control of the camp.
- 2008 October; Lebanon establishes diplomatic relations with Syria for first time since both countries gained independence in the 1940s.
- 2009, June; The pro-Western, “March 14 Alliance”, wins parliamentary elections and forms unity government .
- 2011, January; The Lebanese Government collapses after Hezbollah and allied ministers resign. 
- 2011, June; Najib Mikati forms cabinet dominated by Hezbollah. The UN's Special Tribunal for Lebanon issues four arrest warrants over the murder of Rafik Hariri. The accused are members of Hezbollah, which says it won't allow their arrest .
- 2012, December; Several days of deadly fighting between supporters and opponents of the Syrian president in Tripoli.
- 2013, June; A number of people are killed in clashes between Hezbollah gunmen and Syrian rebels within Lebanon. At least 17 Lebanese soldiers are killed in clashes with Sunni militants in the port city of Sidon.
- 2013, July; The European Union (EU) lists the military wing of Hezbollah as a terrorist organization. This makes it illegal for Hezbollah sympathizers in Europe to send the group money, and enables the freezing of the group's assets there .
- 2013, August; Dozens of people are killed in bomb attacks at two Mosques in Tripoli. The twin attacks, which are linked to tensions over the Syrian conflict, are the deadliest in Lebanon since the end of the civil war in 1990 .