Hokes Bluff, AL
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Hokes Bluff is a city in Etowah County, Alabama, located a few miles east of Gadsden. The towns' population in 2000 was 4,149 and is approximately 11.8 square miles in total area. Hokes Bluff was used as a staging area for Indians forced to leave the area in what is known as the Trail of Tears. The town was incorporated in 1946.
◊ History of Hokes Bluff, AL
◊ History of AL
◊ Weather data for Hokes Bluff, AL
◊ Historic Weather Events for AL
- 1838; Hokes Bluff was used as a staging area for Indians forced to leave the area in what is known as the Trail of Tears.
- 1842, March 29; First Baptist Church of Hokes Bluff was organized - it was one of the oldest churches in Etowah County.
- 1850; Daniel Hoke built a trading post, general store, and blacksmith shop near the Bluff - the name was changed to Hokes Bluff.
- 1863, May 2; Colonel Streight and his Union Army raiders reached Gadsden.
- 1863, May 3; Streight surrenders to General Forrest.
- 1864, Oct 21; Elements of the Confederate Army of Tennessee crossed the Coosa at the location of the ferry and the railroad bridge in Gadsden, heading toward Atlanta ahead of Sherman's Union Army.
- 1868, May; Locusts overran Hokes Bluff and the surrounding area.
- 1877, January; Coosa River froze solid - wagons could cross the river.
- 1886, Dec; 16-18 inches of snow fell on Hokes Bluff.
- 1888, April; The Coosa overflowed its banks by a record high of 42 feet.
- 1890; Coosa River again froze solid.
- 1890, July 4; A new and improved mail route from Gadsden to Hokes Bluff started. The service ran six times a week.
- 1890; The first schools in Hokes Bluff were started (about 1890) - they were the Hokes Bluff Male and Female Colleges.
- 1891, January 11; An explosion rocks Hokes Bluff, including Gadsden to Walnut Grove, and Collinsville - a meteor had exploded somewhere in the area.
- 1909, July 29; John Wisdom died.
- 1936; The original building of the Male and Female college burned - at the time it was being used as a grade 1-9 school.
- 1937; Hokes Bluff High School was built.
- 1940; The high school building burned.
- 1946; Hokes Bluff was incorporated as a city with a population of 1200.
- 1947, August 16; The Farm to Market highway from Hokes Bluff to Centre was completed.
- 1954, December 19, An elementary building and a lunchroom were added to the High School building.
- 1959, September 18; Hokes Bluffs marching band made its first appearance - it was directed by Rod Ferguson.
- 2000; Population 4,149.
- 2010; Population 4,286.
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Marker located next to the Hokes Bluff City Hall dedicated to John Henry Wisdom. The Paul Revere of the Confederacy.
1500 - 1700
- 10,000 BC - 7000 BC
Paleo-Indian culture of seminomadic hunter-foragers living in open countryside and in natural rock shelters (e.g. Russell Cave in Jackson County and the Stanfield-Worley bluff shelter in Colbert County).
- 7000 BC - 1000 BC
Archaic Period of Native American hunter-gatherer culture as Indians build temporary dwellings, add shellfish to their diets, and fashion atlatls (spear throwers) to hunt small game.
- 2500 BC - 100 BC
Gulf Formational Period of Indian culture with increasing sophistication in ceramic development with tempered pottery.
- 300 BC - 1000 AD
Woodland Period of permanent houses, embellished pottery, bows and arrows, and maize and squash cultivation.
- 700 AD - 1300 AD
Mississippian culture features ceremonial mounds (e.g. Moundville, in Hale County), ornate pottery, and sophisticated agriculture.
1700 - 1899
- 1519; Alonso Álvarez de Pineda of Spain explores Gulf of Mexico from Florida to Mexico, including Mobile Bay.
- 1528 - 1536; Spaniard Pánfilo de Narváez fails in Florida Gulf Coast colonization attempt.
- 1539 - 1541; Hernando de Soto explores Southeast, meeting Chief Tuskaloosa (Tascaluza) in Battle of Maubila in southwest Alabama (October 18, 1540).
- 1559 - 1561; Don Tristán de Luna fails to establish permanent Spanish colony on Alabama-Florida coast.
- ca. 1600; Beginning of the rise of the historic tribes of Alabama: Muskogean-speaking Indian groups, remnants of the Mississippian chiefdoms, coalesces into the Creek Confederacy. Similar developments take place among the other heirs to the Mississippian tradition, creating the Choctaw, Chickasaw, and Cherokee tribes.
- 1607; First permanent English colony in North America established at Jamestown, VA.
- 1620; Pilgrims establish Plymouth Colony in present-day Plymouth, Massachusetts.
- 1682; René-Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle, navigate the Mississippi River, claiming area of Louisiana in honor of Louis XIV, King of France.
1900 - 2006
- 1702, January 20; Le Moyne brothers, d' Iberville and de Bienville, establish French fort and settlement, Fort Louis de la Mobile, on a bluff twenty-seven miles up the Mobile River from Mobile Bay.
- 1704, October 3; Cassette Girls arrive in Mobile. King Louis XIV pays passage and dowries for twenty-five young women to travel from France on board The Pelican to colony of Louisiana to become wives of colonists. Other Cassette Girls arrived in 1728.
- 1711; Mobile moved from Twenty-seven Mile Bluff to permanent site at the mouth of the Mobile River.
- 1717; Fort Toulouse on the Coosa River constructed to trade with the Indians and offset influence of British; farthest eastward penetration of the French.
- 1720; French Louisiana capitol moved from Mobile west to Biloxi, MS, then to New Orleans (1722).
- 1721; Africane sails into Mobile harbor with cargo of over 100 slaves.
- 1724; French Code Noir extended from French West Indies to North American colonies, institutionalizing slavery in Mobile area.
- 1756 - 1763; Seven Years War (French and Indian War) won by Great Britain. France ceded territorial claims east of the Mississippi River to Britain and those west of the River (including New Orleans) to Spain; Great Britain returned war-captured Cuba to Spain for Florida, which was divided into West Florida (including Mobile) and East Florida (the peninsula).
- 1775 - 1783; American Revolution creates United States of America governed by the Articles of Confederation.
- 1779; Spain, the United States' unsung ally, asks Britain to recognize the independence of the thirteen united States of America and to cease hostilities. Spain contributes over $5,000,000 to the revolution.
- 1780, March 14: Spanish capture Mobile during American Revolution and retain the West and East Floridas as part of war-ending treaty.
- 1787; United States Constitution written.
- 1790; Creek Indians, led by Alexander McGillivray, negotiate the Treaty of New York with the U.S. government. The treaty ceded Creek territory in Georgia to the new nation, and acknowledged Indian rights in western Georgia and Alabama.
- 1793; Eli Whitney invents cotton gin.
- 1797 - 1799; U.S. Surveyor General Andrew Ellicott makes survey that establishes U.S. claims for its southern boundary with Spanish West Florida at the 31st parallel. Ellicott's Stone is placed north of Mobile in 1799 to mark the 31st parallel.
- 1798; Mississippi Territory organized from Georgia's western land claims, including Alabama.
- 1799, May 5; U.S. Army Lieutenant John McClary takes possession of Fort St. Stephens from the Spanish, and the United States flag is raised for the first time on soil that would eventually belong to Alabama.
- 1802; Georgia formally cedes western claims for its southern boundary at the 31st parallel.
- 1803; Louisiana Purchase from France gives U.S. immense new territory and port of New Orleans.
- 1803 - 1811; Federal Road conceived and built connecting Milledgeville, Georgia, and Fort Stoddert, an American outpost north of Mobile.
- 1805 - 1806; Indian cessions opened up to white settlement large portions of western (Choctaw) and northern (Chickasaw and Cherokee) Alabama.
- 1810; West Florida, from Pearl River to the Mississippi, annexed by U.S. from Spain.
- 1811 - 1812; Schools established at St. Stephens (Washington Academy, 1811) and Huntsville (Green Academy, 1812).
- 1811 - 1816; Newspapers established in Mobile (Centinel, May 11, 1811; Gazette, 1812) and Huntsville (Alabama Republican, 1816).
- 1812 - 1815; War of 1812 between U.S. and Great Britain.
- April 1813; U.S. annexes West Florida, from the Pearl River to the Perdido River, from Spain; Spanish surrender Mobile to American forces (April 15).
- September 15, 1814; British attack on Fort Bowyer on Mobile Point fails, prompting them to abandon plans to capture Mobile and turn towards New Orleans.
- February 11, 1815; British forces take Fort Bowyer on return from defeat at New Orleans, then abandon upon learning that the war is over.
- 1813 - 1814; Creek Indian War, a part of the War of 1812, fought largely within the boundaries of present-day Alabama. Andrew Jackson of Tennessee becomes a military hero as he leads U.S. forces against the "Red Stick" Creeks. 
- July 27, 1813; Battle of Burnt Corn Creek.
- August 30, 1813; Fort Mims Massacre.
- November 3, 1813; Battle of Tallushatchee.
- November 9, 1813; Battle of Talladega.
- November 12, 1813; The Canoe Fight.
- November 18, 1813; Hillabee Massacre.
- November 29, 1813; Battle of Autosse.
- December 23, 1813; Battle of Holy Ground (Econochaca).
- January 22, 1814; Battle of Emuckfau Creek.
- January 24, 1814; Battle of Enitachopco.
- January 27, 1814; Battle of Calabee Creek.
- March 27, 1814; Battle of Horseshoe Bend (Tohopeka).
- August 9, 1814; Treaty of Fort Jackson finalized; 23 million acres of Creek territory ceded to the United States, opening up half of the present state of Alabama to white settlement.
- 1817, March 3; The Alabama Territory is created when Congress passes the enabling act allowing the division of the Mississippi Territory and the admission of Mississippi into the union as a state.
- 1818, Janurary 19; The first legislature of the Alabama Territory convenes at the Douglass Hotel in the territorial capital of St. Stephens.
- 1818; "The Alabama", the area's first steamboat, constructed in St. Stephens.
- 1818; Cedar Creek Furnace, the state's first blast furnace and commerical pig-iron producer, established in present-day Franklin County.
- 1818, November 21; Cahaba designated by the territorial legislature as Alabama's state capital. Huntsville would serve temporarily as state capital.
- 1819, March 2; President James Monroe signs the Alabama enabling act.
- July 5 - August 2; Constitutional Convention meets in Huntsville and adopts state constitution.
- September 20-21; The first general election for governor, members of Congress, legislators, court clerks, and sheriffs is held as specified by state constitution. Territorial governor William Wyatt Bibb is elected the state's first governor.
- October 25 - December 17; General Assembly [legislature] meets in Huntsville while the Cahaba capitol is constructed.
- October 28; Legislature elects William Rufus King and John W. Walker as Alabama's first U.S. senators.
- December 14; Alabama enters Union as 22nd state.
- 1820, May 8; The Alabama Supreme Court, composed of Alabama's circuit court judges, convenes for the first time.
- 1820, July 10; Gov. William Wyatt Bibb dies as a result of injuries received in a riding accident. His younger brother Thomas Bibb, president of the state senate, automatically becomes governor, as required by the state constitution.
- 1820, October 22; The steamboat Harriet reaches Montgomery after ten days of travel from Mobile. This was the first successful attempt to navigate so far north on the Alabama River, and it opened river trade between Montgomery and Mobile.
- 1822, December; Legislature charters Athens Female Academy, which later becomes Athens State University.
- 1825; French general and American Revolution hero, the Marquis de Lafayette, tours Alabama at Governor Israel Pickens invitation.
- 1826; The Capital of Alabama is moved to Tuscaloosa.
- 1830, January 19; LaGrange College chartered by legislature; eventually becomes the University of North Alabama. The college actually opened its doors to students on January 11, 1830.
- 1830 - 1838; President Andrew Jackson's Indian Removal Bill approved by Congress (1830); land cession treaties follow between the U.S. and each of the Indian peoples with a presence in Alabama, each of whom cede their remaining lands east of the Mississippi in exchange for western lands.
- 1831; Nat Turner slave insurrection in Virginia.
1832, April 13; University of Alabama formally opens its doors.
- 1832; Bell Factory (Madison County), state's first textile mill, chartered by legislature.
- 1832, June 12; Alabama's first railroad, the Tuscumbia Railway, opens, running the two miles from Tuscumbia Landing at the Tennessee River to Tuscumbia.
- 1833, November 12-13; A fantastic meteor shower causes this night to be known as "the night stars fell on Alabama."
- 1833; Daniel Pratt establishes cotton gin factory north of Montgomery; his company town, Prattville (founded 1839), would become a manufacturing center in the antebellum South.
- 1835; Alabama gold rush, concentrated in east-central hill country, begins; peaks the next year.
- 1835; Dr. James Marion Sims, "the Father of Modern Gynecology," establishes medical practice in Mt. Meigs, then in nearby Montgomery (1840). He moved on to New York in 1853 to found renowned Woman's Hospital.
- 1836; Texas War for Independence from Mexico.
- 1836 - 1837; Second Creek War (Seminole War); Battle of Hobdy's Bridge last Indian battle in Alabama (1837).
- 1845 - 1848; U.S. annexes Texas; the Mexican-American War follows. Alabamians volunteered in large numbers to fight, but only the 1st Alabama regiment, a battalion, and several independent companies actually were received into federal service.
- 1846, January 28; Legislature selects Montgomery as new capital; begins its first session there December 6, 1847.
- 1856; Alabama Coal Mining Company begins first systematic underground mining in the state near Montevallo.
- 1856; East Alabama Male College established at Auburn by Methodists; evolved into Auburn University.
- 1858, October 4; Alabama School for the Deaf founded in Talladega; evolved into the state-supported Alabama Institute for Deaf and Blind.
- 1860; Federal Census:
- State population = 964,201.
- White population = 526,271 (54.58 % of state population)
- African-American population = 437,770 (45.40 % of state population)
- Slave population = 435,080 (99.39 % of African-American population)
- Free black population = 2,690 (0.61 % of African-American population)
- 1861 - 1865 American Civil War. 194 military land events and 8 naval engagements occurred within the boundaries of Alabama during the Civil War. [More Information]
- 1861, January 4; A full week before Alabama secedes from the Union, Gov. A. B. Moore orders the seizure of federal military installations within the state. By the end of the next day Alabama troops controlled Fort Gaines, Fort Morgan, and the U.S. Arsenal at Mount Vernon.
- 1861, January 10; First Shot of the Civil War fired at the Union Ship "Star of the West" as it attempted to reinforce Major Anderson at Fort Sumter.
- 1861, January 11; The Alabama Secession Convention passes an Ordinance of Secession, declaring Alabama a "Sovereign and Independent State." By a vote of 61-39, Alabama becomes the fourth state to secede from the Union.
- 1861, February 4; Delegates from six states that had recently seceded from the Union meet in Montgomery to establish the Confederate States of America. Four days later this provisional Confederate Congress, comprising representatives of Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi, and South Carolina, organized the Confederacy with the adoption of a provisional constitution.
- 1861, February 18; After being welcomed to Montgomery with great fanfare, Jefferson Davis is inaugurated as president of the Confederate States of America on the portico of the Alabama capitol. Davis, a former U.S. senator from Mississippi, lived in Montgomery until May, when the Confederate government was moved from Montgomery to its new capital of Richmond, Virginia.
- 1861, February 18; Jefferson Davis becomes the President of the Confederate States of America.
- 1861, February-May; Montgomery , AL, serves as Confederate State of America (C.S.A.) capital until move to Richmond, Virginia.
- 1861, March 4; Abraham Lincoln is inaugurated as the 16th President of the United States.
- 1861, April 9; The Confederate cabinet at a meeting in Montgomery, AL, decides to open fire on Ft. Sumter. President Jefferson Davis orders General P. T. Beauregard to "reduce" Fort Sumter.
- 1861, April 12; Bombardment of Fort Sumter begins at 4:30 A.M. The bombardment lasts 33 hours and the Confederates fire 3,000 shells. No one on either side is killed and only one injured at Fort Sumter. Edmund Ruffin is credited with the first shot. Captain James fired the signal shell from a ten inch mortar on Johnson's Island but the first gun from the iron clad battery on Morris Island is generally considered the first shot. Roger A. Pryor declined the honor of firing the signal shell. Ruffin later wraps himself in the Confederate Flag and commits suicide.
- 1861, April 13; Fort Sumter surrenders at 2:30 PM on Saturday. Major Robert Anderson is allowed to fire a 100 gun salute to the United States Flag but only 50 guns are fired. One of the guns explodes and Private Daniel Hough is killed and five are injured. Some authors say two were killed. Perhaps one died of wounds.
- 1861, April 15; Lincoln calls for 75,000 volunteers for three months service.
- 1861; Construction begins on the Confederate submarine, H.L. Hunley in Mobile, Alabama. For more information; visit the Online Library; Ships of the Confederate States, Submarine H.L. Hunley (1863-1864).
- 1862, June 16; In early June Major General David Hunter transports Horatio G. Wright's and Isaac I. Stevens's Union divisions under immediate direction of Brigadier General Henry Benham to James Island where they entrenched at Grimball's Landing near the southern flank of the Confederate defenses around Charleston, SC. Without orders, Benham launched an unsuccessful frontal assault against Fort Lamar at Secessionville.
- 1862, September 22; President Abraham Lincoln issues the Emancipation Proclamation declaring the freedom of all slaves in any state of the Confederate States of America that did not return to Union control by January 1, 1863.
- 1863, April-May; Col. Abel D. Streight's Raid in north Alabama.
- 1863; Emma Sansom leads General Forrest over Black Creek
- 1863, May 2-3; John Henry Wisdom rides 67 miles from Gadsden, AL, to Rome, GA, under very harassing conditions to warn the citizens of Col. Abel D. Streight's proposed march to burn Rome. Because of his efforts, barricades were erected and eventually Col. A. D. Streight's forces surrendered to General Bedford Forrest.
- 1863, July 1-3; Battle of Gettysburg, Pennsylvania.
- 1863, August 12; the Hunley arrived by train in Charleston.
- 1863, November 19; President Abraham Lincoln delivers the Gettysburg Address at the dedication of the Soldiers' National Cemetery in Gettysburg, Pennsylvania.
- 1864, June 19; The CSS Alabama, captained by Mobile's Raphael Semmes, is sunk at the end of a fierce naval engagement with the USS Kearsarge off the coast of Cherbourg, France. The Alabama had docked there for maintenance and repairs after 22 months of destroying northern commerce on the high seas during the Civil War.
- 1864, August 5; The Battle of Mobile Bay begins. U.S. Admiral David Glasgow Farragut, with a force of fourteen wooden ships, four ironclads, 2,700 men, and 197 guns, assaulted greatly outnumbered Confederate defenses guarding the approach to Mobile Bay. Farragut's victory removed Mobile as a center of blockade-running and freed Union troops for service in Virginia.
- 1864, October 15-23; General P.G.T. Beauregard establishes his headquarters in "Ten Oaks " in Jacksonville, AL, while he coordinated the movement of General J. B. Hood's army, then marching across northeast Alabama enroute to Nashville, TN. He and his retinue, including Governor I.G. Harris of Tennessee and General M.L. Smith, were guests of Mr. and Mrs James Crook who erected "Ten Oaks " in 1850, the largest house in Calhoun County. Beauregard stood on the front balcony to be serenaded by the townspeople who were assembled in the yard to honor him on his appointment as Commander, Military Division of the West, C.S.A., by Jefferson Davis.
- 1865, April 8; General Robert E. Lee surrenders to Ulysses S. Grant at Appomattox Station, VA.
- 1865, April 14; Lincoln shot by John Wilks Booth at Fords Theater on Good Friday.
- 1865, April 14; General Robert Anderson raises the same flag over Fort Sumter that he lowered 4 years before.
- 1865 May 26; Civil War end; when General Kirby Smith surrenders Confederate forces west of the Mississippi River.
- 1865 - 1876; Era of Reconstruction in the South.
- 1865, September 12; New Alabama Constitution adopted to comply with Presidential Reconstruction dictates to rejoin Union; rejected by U.S. Congress.
- 1865, December 6; The Thirteenth Amendment to the U.S Constitution is ratified, thus officially abolishing slavery.
- 1866; Lincoln Normal School founded as private institution for African-Americans at Marion; relocated to Montgomery (1887) and evolved into Alabama State University.
- 1868; Reconstruction Constitution ratified (February) gaining Alabama readmission to the Union, and allowing black suffrage for the first time.
- 1871; Birmingham, AL, is founded. Birmingham evolves into center of Southern iron and steel industry.
- 1871, November; James Rapier of Lauderdale County elected to U.S. Congress, one of three African American congressmen elected from Alabama during Reconstruction. Benjamin Turner served from 1871-1873 and Jeremiah Haralson served 1875-1877.
- 1875, November 16; Alabama's Constitution of 1875 is ratified. The Bourbon Democrats, or "Redeemers", having claimed to "redeem" the Alabama people from the Reconstruction rule of carpetbaggers and scalawags, wrote a new constitution to replace the one of 1868. It was a conservative document that gave the Democrats, and especially Black Belt planters, a firm grip on their recently reacquired control of state government.
- 1876; Gadsden, AL, is incorporated.
- 1880; National Baptist Convention (African-American Baptists) organized at Montgomery.
- 1880, June 27; Helen Keller is born in Tuscumbia. Having lost both sight and hearing by illness as a small child, Keller's life story and activism inspired new attitudes toward those with handicaps.
- 1881, February 10; The Alabama Legislature establishes Tuskegee Institute as a "normal school for the education of colored teachers." The law stipulated that no tuition would be charged and graduates must agree to teach for two years in Alabama schools. Booker T. Washington was chosen as the first superintendent and arrived in Alabama in June 1881. Washington's leadership would make Tuskegee one of the most famous and celebrated historic black colleges in the U.S.
- 1893, February 22; The first Auburn/Alabama football game is played in Birmingham's Lakeview Park before a crowd of 5,000 spectators. Auburn won this first match-up 32-22. The rivalry continued until 1907 when the games were stopped, with the renewal of the series not coming until 1948.
- 1893, September 30; Julia Tutwiler persuades the Board of Trustees of the University of Alabama to try a qualified form of co-education. A faculty committee agreed to "admit young women of not less than 18 years of age, of good character and antecedents, who are able to stand the necessary examinations: for entrance to the sophomore class or higher." A required proviso was that "suitable homes and protection" be provided. In the fall of 1893, two women students entered the university.
- 1895; Booker T. Washington speech to the Cotton States and International Exposition in Atlanta, GA, urges racial accommodation, suggesting blacks seek economic independence rather than political/social equality.
- 1896, October 8; George Washington Carver arrives in Macon County to direct Tuskegee Institute's agricultural school. Born a slave in Missouri during the Civil War, Carver was studying in Iowa when school president Booker T. Washington invited him to Alabama. He remained at Tuskegee until his death in 1943, and although he dedicated much of his work to helping black farmers in the South, Carver's international fame came from his innovative uses of peanuts, sweet potatoes, and other southern products.
- 1896; Plessy v. Ferguson decision by U.S. Supreme Court establishes "separate but equal" doctrine in racial policy.
- 1898, February 15; The USS Maine (ACR-1) exploded and sinks in Havana Harbor, Cuba.
- 1898; Spanish-American War.
- 1899; The boll weevil crosses the Rio Grande from Mexico.
- 1901, January 31; Tallulah Bankhead, star of stage, screen, and radio in the 1930s, '40s, and '50s, is born in Huntsville, AL.
- 1901, March 2; Trustees of the Alabama Department of Archives and History meet in Gov. William J. Samford's office to organize the nation's first state archival agency.
- 1902, November 29; The New York Medical Record publishes an account of Dr. Luther Leonidas Hill performing the first open heart surgery in the western hemisphere when he sutured a knife wound in a young boy's heart. Dr. Hill was the father of Alabama politician and U.S. senator Lister Hill.
- 1904; Colonel William Crawford Gorgas of Alabama begins elimination of scourges of yellow fever and malaria in Panama Canal Zone.
- 1904 Sculptor Giuseppe Moretti created an iron statue of Vulcan to represent Alabama Industry and Birmingham, AL, at the St. Louis World's Fair.
- 1909; Wright Brothers, Orville and Wilbur, establish "flying school" on land outside Montgomery , AL, (present site of Maxwell Air Force Base) six years after their first flights.
- 1909; Boll Weevil, insect destroyer of cotton, enters state from Mississippi border.
- 1914 - 1920 The First World War. [More Information]
- 1917; Fort Jackson, near Wetumpka, Alabama, the nation's largest U.S. Army training facility, begins to prepare soldiers for World War I.
- 1917, February 3; US severs diplomatic ties with Germany.
- 1917, April 6; The US declares war on Germany.
- Alabama's 167th Regiment, a part of the 42nd "Rainbow Division", serves at the front longer than any U.S. regiment.
- 1918, March 3; Russia and Germany sign an armistice at Brest-Litovsk.
- 1918, May 28; US forces make their first offensive, at Cantigny, France.
- 1918, November 11; Armistice Day. At the 11th hour of the 11th day of the 11th month, Germany signs an armistice with the Allies. The war is officially over. More than 8.5 million have been killed and over twice as many wounded from across the globe. New technology has been created, America has risen to prominence as an economic power and new countries are forming in Europe and the Middle East.
- 1920, August 18; Women win the right to vote when the 19th Amendment to the United States Constitution is ratified by Tennessee.
- 1929 - 1940; The Great Depression and New Deal.
- The beginning of the Great Depression in the United States is associated with the stock market crash on October 29, 1929, known as Black Tuesday. The depression had devastating effects in both the industrialized countries and those which exported raw materials.
- 1933; The Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) is created as part of the The New Deal to develop resources of poor Appalachian South, including large parts of north Alabama.
- The New Deal is the title President Franklin D. Roosevelt gave to a sequence of programs and promises he initiated between 1933 and 1938 with the goal of giving relief, reform and recovery to the people and economy of the United States during the Great Depression.
- 1931, March 25; Nine black youths, soon to be known as the Scottsboro Boys, are arrested in Paint Rock and jailed in Scottsboro, the Jackson County seat. Charged with raping two white women on a freight train from Chattanooga, TN, the sheriff had to protect them from mob violence that night. Within a month, eight of the nine were sentenced to death. Based on questionable evidence, the convictions by an all-white jury generated international outrage.
- 1931, September 18; Japan invades Manchuria.
- 1936, August 3; Lawrence County native Jesse Owens wins his first gold medal at the 1936 Olympics in Berlin, Germany. Owens went on to win four gold medals in Berlin, Germany, but German leader Adolf Hitler snubbed the star athlete because he was black. Today visitors can learn more about Owens at the Jesse Owens Memorial Park and Museum in Oakville, Alabama.
- 1939 - 1945 World War II. [More Information]
- Axis powers (Germany, Italy, Japan, Hungary, Romania, Bulgaria) versus Allies (U.S., Britain, France, USSR, Australia, Belgium, Brazil, Canada, China, Denmark, Greece, Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Poland, South Africa, Yugoslavia).
- 1939; Germany invades Poland.
- 1941; Gadsden Ordinance Plant built.
- 1941; Training of African-American military pilots, the "Tuskegee Airmen," underway.
- 1941, December 7; Japan attacks Pearl Harbor.
- 1942; Gadsden Air Depot built.
- 1942; Construction begins on Camp Sibert. Camp Sibert was the first large-scale chemical agent training area in the United States and operated from 1942 to 1945, and was also iused as a POW camp.
- 1942, April: American and Filipino prisoners of war are forced to endure World War II Bataan Death March in the Philippines.
- 1942, August 16; The South Dakota-class battleship, USS Alabama (BB-60), is commissioned. The USS Alabama is 680 feet long, displaced 35,000 standard tons and carried a main armiment of 9 - 16 in (406 mm) guns. The USS Alabama was Decommissioned on January 9, 1947.
- 1943; Redstone Arsenal is created in Huntsville, AL, as a second chemical weapon plant in addition to the existing plant at Edgewood, Maryland. Workload was heavy during World War II, leading to construction of the Huntsville Arsenal nearby.
- 1945, April 12; President Franklin D. Roosevelt dies at Warm Springs, Georgia.
- 1945, May 8; Victory in Europe, V-E Day.
- 1945, September 2; Victory over Japan, V-J Day Japanese sign surrender terms aboard battleship Missouri (BB-63).
- 1944, January 2; The State of Alabama granted Hunt Oil Company a permit to drill the A.R. Jackson Well No. 1 near Gilbertown, Choctaw County. This will become the first oil well in Alabama.
- 1946; Hokes Bluff, AL, incorporated.
- 1950 - 1953; The Korean War is fought in Korea.
- 1954; U.S. Supreme Court decides in Brown v. Board of Education, Topeka that "separate" schools cannot be "equal." This paved the way for desegregation and the civil rights movement.
- 1955; December 1; Rosa Parks, a black seamstress, is arrested for refusing to give up her seat for a boarding white passenger as required by Montgomery city ordinance. Her action prompted the historic Montgomery Bus Boycott and earned her a place in history as "the mother of the modern day civil rights movement." Ms. Parks was inducted into the Alabama Academy of Honor in August 2000.
- 1956, January 30; With the Montgomery Bus Boycott about to enter its third month, segregationists bomb the home of boycott spokesman Martin Luther King Jr.. The home sustained moderate damage, but no one was injured. The young minister addressed the large crowd that gathered after the blast, declaring, "I want it to be known the length and breadth of this land that if I am stopped this movement will not stop."
- 1956; Army Ballistic Missile Agency established at Redstone Arsenal in Huntsville, AL .
- 1956; Autherine Lucy unsuccessfully attempts to desegregate the University of Alabama.
- 1956, December 21, The Supreme Court ruling banning segregated seating on Montgomery's public transit vehicles goes into effect. Reverend Martin Luther King Jr. and Rosa Parks were among the first people to ride a fully integrated bus, ending the historic year-long Montgomery Bus Boycott .
- 1957; Soviet satellite "SPUTNIK" launched to begin "Space Race."
- 1958; The Huntsville-built "Jupiter" rocket places American satellite in orbit around Earth.
- 1960, September 8; The George C. Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville is dedicated by President Dwight D. Eisenhower. Gov. John Patterson and Werner von Braun, director of the space flight center, were in attendance as was Mrs. Marshall who unveiled a bust in honor of her husband.
- 1961; "Freedom Rides" through the Deep South challenge racial segregation on public carriers and spark into violence in Anniston, Birmingham, AL,, and Montgomery . The Freedom Ride eventually resulted in a campaign that caused the Interstate Commerce Commission to rule against segregated facilities in interstate travel.
- 1962, November 30; Football and baseball star, Vincent Edward "Bo" Jackson was born in Bessemer. Jackson won the Heisman Trophy in 1985 and was the first professional athlete to be named an all star in two major sports.
- 1963, May 19; Martin Luther King Jr.'s "Letter from Birmingham Jail" is issued to the public in a press release. Begun April 16 from the Birmingham City Jail, where King was under arrest for participation in civil rights demonstrations, the letter was addressed to eight local clergymen who had recently urged civil rights leaders to use the courts and local negotiations instead of mass demonstrations to promote their cause in Birmingham, AL,. King's letter, which soon became a classic text of the civil rights movement, rejected the clergymen's plea.
- 1964, June 11; The USS Alabama (BB-60) is moored in Mobele Bay and becomes a Museum ship.
- 1965, March 21; Rev. Martin Luther King leads 3,200 marchers from Selma toward Montgomery in support of civil rights for black Americans (Selma to Montgomery marches), after two earlier marches had ended at the Edmund Pettus Bridge--the first in violence and the second in prayer. Four days later, outside the Alabama state capitol, King told 25,000 demonstrators that "we are on the move now . . . and no wave of racism can stop us."
- 1965, August 6; President Lyndon B. Johnson signed the Voting Rights Act into law.
- 1974, April 8; Mobile native Henry Louis "Hank" Aaron of the Atlanta Braves hits his 715th career home run to break Babe Ruth's longstanding record. Aaron finished his career with 755 home runs.
- 1982, November; Oscar Adams was elected to the Alabama Supreme Court, becoming the first African American elected to statewide constitutional office in Alabama.
- 1992; Autherine Lucy she earned her Masters degree in Elementary Education from the University of Alabama that she had applied to decades earlier.
- 2001; Birmingham, AL, native Condoleezza Rice is appointed National Security Advisor to President George W. Bush. She is the first woman to occupy that position.
- 2004, November 16; President George W. Bush nominates National Security Advisor Condoleezza Rice to serve as Secretary of State. The Birmingham, AL, native is the first African American woman to serve in that office. She was confirmed by the U.S. Senate on January 26, 2005.
- 2005, August 29; Hurricane Katrina, a category 5 hurricane, makes landfall on the Louisiana coast, and becomes one of the greatest natural disasters in U.S. history. Katrina leaves a wake of destruction stretching across the northern Gulf coast from Louisiana to Florida.
- 2007, March 29; About 350 Tuskegee Airmen and their widows were collectively awarded the Congressional Gold Medal at a ceremony in the US Capitol rotunda. The medal will go on display at the Smithsonian Institution; individual honorees will receive bronze replicas.
For more information about The History of Alabama, visit the following sites:
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Hokes Bluff, AL Weather Information
Monthly average highs and low temperatures and the average amount of precipitation for Hokes Bluff, AL.
Data from Gadsden Weather station, 6.68 miles from Hokes Bluff).
The climate in Hokes Bluff, AL, climate is hot during summer when temperatures tend to be in the upper 80´s and cool to cold during winter when temperatures tend to be in the low 30´s. The yearly mean is 60.8 ° Fahrenheit.
The warmest month of the year is July with an average maximum temperature of 90.5 ° Fahrenheit, while the coldest month of the year is January with an average minimum temperature of 29.9 ° Fahrenheit.
The annual average precipitation at Hokes Bluff is 56.10 inches. Rainfall is fairly evenly distributed throughout the year. The wettest period of the year is in March with an average rainfall of 6.55 inches while the driest month is October with an average rainfall of 2.95 inches.
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Historical Weather data
I am still doing research on this weather history of the city.
AL Notable Severe Weather Events
Alabama has had five major droughts since recordkeeping began -- 1929-32, 1938-45, 1950-63, 1980-82, and 1984-88. A network of 20 long-term gaging stations was used to define the areal extent and recurrence interval of the droughts. Six of these gaging stations, which had record lengths ranging from 50 to 65 years, were selected to show the intensity and duration of droughts.
- 1929-1932 - The drought of 1929-32 had a recurrence interval greater than 25 years in the Mulberry Fork basin in other river basins in east-central Alabama, the recurrence interval was 10-25 years. In the Flint River basin of the Tennessee River Valley area, the drought had a recurrence interval of 25 years.
- 1938-1945 - The drought of 1938-45 was statewide but was most severe in the northeastern part of the State, where recurrence intervals were greater than 25 years. Runoff during 1941 averaged about 50 percent of the annual average for gaging stations in the Mulberry Fork and Flint River basins. In the rest of the State, the drought had a recurrence interval of 10-25 years.
- 1950-1963 - Included in the sustained drought of 1950-63 was a severe drought during 1954-55. In terms of areal coverage and severity, 1954 is the most extreme drought year on record in Alabama. The annual-departure graphs show a generally negative departure from 1950 to 1955. Runoff during 1954 averaged about 50 percent of the annual average of 21 inches for the four gaging stations in the Mobile River basin. In southern Alabama, precipitation for 1954 was less than average each month, and the annual total of 34.4 inches was the smallest in 71 years of record (U.S. Weather Bureau, 1955). The drought of 1950-63 had a recurrence interval of 44-60 years for gaging stations in the Mobile River basin. In the Flint River basin (fig. 4, site 6) of northern Alabama, the drought had a recurrence interval of 27 years.
- 1980-1982 - Statewide, an extended period of greater than average rainfall began about 1970, lasted about 10 years, and produced a steady upward trend in the annual-departure graphs. Rainfall again became deficient in 1980, however, and in 1981 the rainfall deficiency across the State ranged from 5 to 14 inches. The drought of 1980-82 affected most of Alabama and had recurrence intervals of 10-25 years. Greater than average rainfall during 1983 resulted in recoveries in stream flow at the six gaging stations until about mid-1984.
- 1984-1988 - Beginning in mid-1984, all gaging stations in Alabama show significant negative annual departures some continuing through 1988. The drought of 1984-88 affected the entire state to some degree but was most significant in the eastern half. Recurrence intervals ranged from 30 to 50 years in eastern Alabama to 10 to 25 years north of this area. The recurrence interval for a narrow area in west-central Alabama and most of the Conecuh River basin in southern Alabama was 10-25 years. Maximum rainfall deficiencies in east-central Alabama ranged from 21.1 to 25.3 inches during 1986 (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, 1986). Similar unofficial rainfall deficiencies were reported for 1987. Emergency water measures and restricted reservoir releases were implemented. During the most intense period of the drought, August 1988, daily water supplies were being transported to 15 communities in east-central Alabama. Crop losses during 1986 are reported to have been about $500 million (John Trotman, U.S. Department of Agriculture, oral communication., 1986).
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The following statistics where manually compiled from "The Tornado Project". The statistics are compiled by county. If a single tornado crossed a county line, then that tornado is counted once for each county that it passed through.
Between 1950 and 1995 there were a total of 1,029 tornados in Alabama, killing 277 people and injuring 4,020. Of the 1,029 tornados, 34 where classed as F4 and 13 as F5.
|Enhanced Fujita Scale
- 1908, April 24-26; violent tornadoes moved through parts of Louisiana, Mississippi and Alabama, killing 324 people and injuring 1,652 others. The worst damage took place in Amite, La., where 29 people died.
- 1924, April 30 The April 1924 tornado outbreak affected Alabama, Arkansas, Georgia, Louisiana, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina and Virginia. The most severe damage during this outbreak was seen in parts of Georgia, South Carolina, North Carolina and Virginia on April 30. A tornado produced estimated F2 damage in the town of Lawrenceville, Georgia. A F4 passed through Macon, Georgia, sweeping away a few homes, damaging an industrial area, and killing 3. There were a total of 110 deaths and 1133 injuries. Seven were killed at school in Horrell Hill, South Carolina.
- 1932, March 21-22; a total of 330 people died as a result of tornadoes that touched down across northern Alabama. One tornado hit the northeast part of the state, killing 38 and injuring 500.
- 1936, April 5-6 - The 1936 Tupelo-Gainesville tornado outbreak
affected Alabama, Arkansas, Mississippi, Georgia, South Carolina and Tennessee. There were at least 17 tornadoes, an F5 hit Tupelo, MS, killing 233 and a F4 hitting Gainesville, GA., killing 203. More than 436 people lost their lives during this outbreak.
- 1952, March 21-22 - The March 1952 Southern United States tornado outbreak affected Southern United States, including Arkansas (122 deaths), Tennessee (67 deaths), Missouri (17 deaths), Mississippi (9 deaths), Kentucky, and Alabama (4 deaths). The tornado passed through the business district of Judsonia, AR, Killing 30. In the town, 385 homes were destroyed and 560 exhibited damage. This tornado outbreak killed 209 people.
- 1974; The most prolific tornado outbreak of the 20th century was the Super Outbreak of April 3-4, 1974. During a 16-hour period, 148 tornadoes occurred from Illinois and Indiana into Michigan and Ohio southward through the Tennessee Valley into Mississippi and Alabama. This outbreak produced the largest number of tornadoes, with 30 causing F4 damage or worse. On one occasion, as many as five large tornadoes were on the ground at one time. The most famous tornado from this outbreak was an F5 tornado that moved through Xenia, Ohio. Damages in Xenia alone totaled over $100 million. The outbreak killed 315 people and resulted in 6,142 injuries.
- 1979, April 10-11 - The 1979 Red River Valley tornado outbreak affected Texas, Oklahoma, Kansas, Arkansas, Missouri, Louisiana, Nebraska, `Mississippi, Kentucky, Indiana, Tennessee and Alabama. Fifty nine tornadoes touched down dyring this outbreak including two F2s and killing 58. On April 10, 1979 (known locally as "Terrible Tuesday") a F4 touched down in Wichita Fall, TX, killing 42 and injuring 1,800. The tornado left 20,000 people homeles. The 1979 Red River Valley tornado outbreak affected Texas, Oklahoma, Kansas, Arkansas, Missouri, Louisiana, Nebraska, `Mississippi, Kentucky, Indiana, Tennessee and Alabama. Fifty nine tornadoes touched down during this outbreak including two F2s and killing 58. On April 10, 1979 (known locally as "Terrible Tuesday") a F4 touched down in Wichita Fall, TX, killing 42 and injuring 1,800. The tornado left 20,000 people homeless.
Source - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wichita_Falls,_Texas#1979_tornado
- 1994, March 27; Palm Sunday, 22 people died in Goshen, AL, after a tornado hit a church.
- 1996, April 19-22 - The April 1996 Tornado Outbreak Sequence affected Texas, Arkansas, Illinois, Indiana, Ontario, Missouri, Iowa, Kentucky, Mississippi, Tennessee, Alabama, North Carolina, Louisiana, Quebec and Arkansas. There were 117 confirmed tornadoes with 11 F3s and six people were killed. In Arkansas there 2 deaths, 8 homes and a mobile home destroyed and a church was also damaged. Six people were injured. In the Ft. Smith, Oklahoma, area 2 people were killed, 498 homes were destroyed while 620 had major damage and 1275 had minor damage, 98 businesses were damaged or destroyed and 246 apartment units were damaged. 89 people were injured.
- January 17-22, 1999 - The January 1999 tornado outbreak sequence affecting Arkansas, Tennessee, Mississippi, Missouri, Louisiana, Kentucky, Illinois, Texas and Alabama. There were 150 confirmed tornadoes, 11 F3s and 2 F4 with 17 fatalities, 8 in Arkansas and 9 in Tennessee. The Little Rock area was hit by and F3 and an F2 tornadoes, killing 3 people. The downtown area was devastated, with severe damage reported to over 235 buildings, many of which were destroyed and over 500 buildings sustained lesser damage.
- 2001, November 23-24 - The Arkansas-Mississippi-Alabama tornado outbreak affected Arkansas, Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana, Missouri, Kentucky, Georgia and Indiana. There were 69 confirmed tornadoes, 3 F4s. This outbreak was responsible for 13 deaths, 4 in Arkansas, 4 in Alabama and 5 in Mississippi.
- 2005, November 15 - The Mid-November 2005 outbreak affected Missouri, Arkansas, Illinois, Indiana, Kentucky, Tennessee and Alabama. There were 50 confirmed tornadoes, 3 F3s and 1 F4. There was one fatality in Benton, Kentucky, area.
- 2005, November 27-28 - The Late-November 2005 tornado outbreak affected Missouri, Arkansas, Kansas, Alabama, Mississippi and Louisiana. There were 57 confirmed tornadoes, 2 F3s. The f3 that struck the Plumerville, Arkansas, area was the strongest tornado and it caused one fatality.
- 2006, September 21-23 - The Late-September 2006 tornado outbreak affected Kansas, Oklahoma, Missouri Alabama, Illinois, Kentucky, Tennessee, Arkansas and Michigan. There were 53 confirmed tornadoe, 1 F3 and 1 F4.
- 2007, February 28 - March 1 - The February-March 2007 Tornado Outbreak affected Florida, Kansas, Missouri, Arkansas, Louisiana, Illinois, Mississippi, Alabama, Kentucky, Georgia, South Carolina and North Carolina. There were 55 confirmed tornadoes, 3 EF3s and 3 EF4s with 19 fatalities. An EF4 struck the Enterprise, Alabama, high school killing 9 and injuring 50. One person was also killed in Millers Ferry, Alabama by an EF4. 1 person was killed in Caulfield, Missouri. In Georgia there was 1 Death and 4 Injuries in Reynolds, 2 Deaths and 11 Injuries in Americus and 6 Deaths 3 Injuries in the Newton area.
- 2008, January 7-9 - The January 2008 tornado outbreak sequence affected southwest Missouri, northwest Arkansas, northeast Oklahoma, Illinois, Wisconsin, Tennessee, Mississippi, Alabama, Louisiana and Kentucky. There were 85 confirmed tornadoes, including 8 EF3s. There were 4 fatalities.
- 2008, February 5-6 - The 2008 Super Tuesday Tornado Outbreak affected Tennessee, Kentucky, Arkansas, Mississippi, Alabama, Indiana and Texas. There were 86 confirmed tornadoes, 5 EF3s and 5EF4s resulting in 57 fatalities.
- 2008, March 14-15 - The 2008 Atlanta tornado outbreak Alabama, Georgia, South Carolina and North Carolina. There were 45 confirmed tornadoes, with 3 EF3s. On Friday, March 14, 2008, an EF2 struck the downtown Atlanta Area, damaging the CNN Center, the Georgia World Congress Center the Georgia Dome, Philips Arena, Ritz Carlton, Westin Peachtree Plaza, Georgia-Pacific Building, SunTrust Tower, Equitable Building, Georgia State University and other downtown businesses. Fortunately only one death was caused by this tornado. On March 15, an EF3 hit in the Aragon, Georgia area, killing two.
- 2009, February 10-11 - The February 2009 tornado outbreak affected Oklahoma, Arkansas, Texas, Alabama, Mississippi, Georgia, Tennessee, Indiana, Ohio, Missouri, Kentucky, Michigan, Iowa, Virginia, Pennsylvania, New York, New Jersey, Connecticut and Massachusetts. There were 15 confirmed tornadoes, one EF4. The EF4 struck SE of Grady, Oklahoma killing 8 people.
- 2009, April 9-10 - The April 2009 tornado outbreak affected Oklahoma, Texas, Arkansas, Missouri, Louisiana, Alabama, Tennessee, Kentucky, Kentucky, South Carolina and North Carolina. There were 85 confirmed tornadoes, 9 EF3s and 1 EF4. There were 5 deaths caused by this outbreak two in Tennessee and 3 in Arkansas. An EF3 tornado hit the Mena, Arkansas area killing three people; an EF4 tornado hit Murfreesboro, Tennessee killing two people.
- 2011, April 4-5 - The April 2011 derecho and tornado outbreak affected Arkansas, Kentucky, Tennessee, Ohio, Louisiana, Mississippi, Georgia, North Carolina and Maryland. "derecho" is Spanish: meaning straight. There were 46 confirmed tornadoes, 6 EF 2s. There were 9 fatalities. An EF2 in struck a mobile home near Eastman, Georgia, killing one and injuring two others.
- 2011, April 14-16 - The April 14-16, 2011 tornado outbreak affected Oklahoma, Arkansas, Kansas, Texas, Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama, Georgia, Missouri, Illinois, North Carolina, South Carolina and Virginia. There were 162 confirmed tornadoes, 14 EF3s and 43 fatalities.
- 2011, April 25-28 The April 25-28, 2011 tornado outbreak affected Alabama, Arkansas, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi, North Carolina, Tennessee, Texas and Virginia. There were 334 confirmed tornadoes, 22 EF3s, 11 EF4s and 4 EF5s. There were 328 fatalities, 237 in Alabama, 6 in Arkansas, 14 in Georgia, 31 in Mississippi, 32 in Tennessee, and 4 in Virigina.328
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|Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Scale
- 1926, September - Miami Hurricane - Category 4. The Miami Hurricane was an intense hurricane that devastated Miami, Florida in September of 1926. The storm also caused significant damage in the Florida Panhandle, Alabama, and the Bahamas. After crossing over the state of Florida, the Hurricane made landfall near Mobile, Alabama as a Category 3 hurricane on September 20 before hooking westward along coastal Alabama and Mississippi, eventually dissipating on September 22 after moving inland over Louisiana.
- 1969, August - Hurricane Camille - Category 5. Hurricane Camille made landfall near the mouth of the Mississippi River on the night of August 17, resulting in catastrophic damage. Camille was the only Atlantic hurricane with official winds reported to reach 190 mph (310 km/h) until Allen equaled that number in 1980. Camille caused extensive damage along U.S. Highway 90 in Alabama. 26,000 homes and over 1,000 businesses were wiped out completely across the state of Alabama.
- 1975, September - Hurricane Eloise - Category 3. Hurricane Eloise made landfall midway between Fort Walton Beach and Panama City, Florida. The highest wind gust reported from an inland location in the United States from Eloise was 120 mph/104 knots at a location 5 miles (8.0 km) northwest of Ozark, Alabama.
- 1979, August - Hurricane Frederic - Category 4. Hurricane Frederic made landfall on Dauphin Island, Alabama at 0300 (GMT) on September 13. The causeway linking Dauphin Island to the mainland was swept away in many areas. Sustained winds were estimated at 125 mph, making Frederic a strong Category 3 hurricane.
- 1985, August - Hurricane Danny - Category 1. Hurricane Danny made landfall near Lake Charles, Louisiana, and spawned several destructive tornadoes in Alabama. The two most damaging tornadoes spawned by Hurricane Danny were the "Redstone Arsenal Tornado" and the "Jasper Tornado" that struck Huntsville and Jasper, Alabama. The Redstone tornado touched down at 2030 UTC near the Gold-Rithe area. The twister damaged trees and signs and flipped over two trailers. The tornado also damaged a runway at Marshall Space Flight Center.
- 1988, September - Hurricane Florence - Category 1. Hurricane Florence made landfall in Louisiana. Brewton, Alabama reported a storm-wide peak rainfall total of 10.67 inches (271 mm). Despite the rainfall, no damage was reported in Alabama or Mississippi. In Mobile Bay in Alabama, one man died while attempting to secure his boat - the only direct fatality related to the hurricane.
- 1989, September - Hurricane Georges - Category 4. The tropical cyclone made seven landfalls on its long track through the Caribbean Sea and Gulf of Mexico during September, becoming the second most destructive storm of the season. Georges killed 603 people, mainly on the island of Hispaniola, and caused nearly $6 billion (1998 US dollars, $7 billion 2006 USD) in damages, mostly in Puerto Rico and Hispaniola.
Upon making landfall, Georges brought a strong storm surge peaking at 11.9 feet (3.6 m) in Fort Morgan, along with 25 foot (7.6 m) waves on top of it. While moving slowly through the state, it dropped torrential rainfall, peaking at 29.66 inches (75 cm) in Bay Minette. Outer squalls spawned tornadoes in the southeast portion of the state, though damage from them was minimal. Overall, damage in Alabama amounted to $125 million (1998 USD, $146 million 2006 USD). Freshwater flooding in Mobile resulted in one death, the only death in the United States.
- 1997 - Hurricane Danny - Category 1. Hurricane Danny stalled near the mouth of Mobile Bay on July 19, then turned to the east, and made its final landfall near Mullet Point, Alabama later that day. Extreme amounts of rainfall were produced over Alabama. Dauphin Island had the highest amount of rainfall, 37.75 inches (959 mm) reported by the HPC. Dauphin Island Sea Lab recorded 36.71 inches (932 mm) of rain, but not all the rain may have recorded in the rain gauge at this location, so it is possible the rainfall may have been underestimated. Doppler weather radar estimates show that around 43 inches (1,090 mm) of rain fell off the coast of Dauphin Island. A storm surge of over 6.5 feet (1.98 m) occurred off of Highway 182, midway between Gulf Shores, and Fort Morgan, Alabama, in addition to the rainfall. Unusually, when the storm stalled off the coast of Alabama, prevailing northerly winds forced the water out of Mobile Bay, causing tides to be two feet (0.61 m) below normal.
- 2002, September - Hurricane Isidore - Category 3. Isidore made landfall at Telchac Puerto in Yucatán as a major hurricane on September 22. Hurricane Isidore and later Hurricane Lili contributed to the shutdown of offshore oil and gas platforms. The effects of back-to-back storms resulted in the loss of production of 14.4 million barrels of oil and 88.9 billion cubic feet of natural gas. A storm surge of 8.3 feet (2.5 m) was measured at Rigoletes, Louisiana, and at Gulfport Harbor, Mississippi. Hurricane Isidore brought widespread heavy rainfall from the central Gulf coast into the Ohio Valley, with a maximum of 15.97 inches (406 mm) at Metarie, Louisiana. The flooding was responsible for moderate crop damage, with a total of $330 million in damage (2002 USD, $360 million 2006 USD). Isidore claimed five lives; four direct and one indirect. The indirect death was from a man that went into cardiac arrest in Mississippi, whereas the other four were drowning deaths.
- 2004, September - Hurricane Ivan - Category 5. The heaviest damage as Ivan made landfall on the U.S. coastline was observed in Baldwin County in Alabama, where the storm's eye (and eye wall) made landfall. High surf and wind brought extensive damage to Orange Beach near the border with Florida. There, two five-story condominium buildings were undermined to the point of collapse by Ivan's storm surge of 14 feet (4.3 m). Both were made of steel-reinforced concrete. Debris gathered in piles along the storm tide, exacerbating the damage when the floodwaters crashed into homes sitting on pilings. Brewton, a community about 50 miles (80 km) inland, also suffered severe damage. In addition to the damage to the southern portions of the state, there was extensive damage to the state's electrical grid. At the height of the outages, Alabama Power reported 489,000 subscribers had lost electrical power - roughly half of their subscriber base. The city of Demopolis, over 100 miles (160 km) inland in west-central Alabama, endured wind gusts estimated at 90 mph (140 km/h), while Montgomery saw wind gusts in the 60 mph (97 km/h) to 70 mph (110 km/h) range at the height of the storm. Ivan caused 14.6 billion (2005 USD) dollars in damage and was directly responsible for the deaths of 91 people.
- 2004, October - Tropical Storm Matthew was a weak tropical storm that made landfall in Louisiana. In Alabama, wind gusts peaked at 47 mph (75 km/h) at Dauphin Island. The storm produced light rainfall across the state, totaling to 2.74 inches (70 mm) at Grand Bay. In addition, Matthew produced tides of 1 to 3 feet (.3 to .9 m) above normal, causing minor to major beach erosion. The beach erosion, which typically would have been minor for a weak storm, was greater than expected due to the passage of Hurricane Ivan just weeks before. No major damage was reported in Alabama.
- 2005, August - Hurricane Katrina - Category 5. Hurricane Katrina was the costliest and one of the five deadliest hurricanes in the history of the United States. Katrina made its second landfall at 6:10 a.m. CDT on August 29 as a Category 3 hurricane with sustained winds of 125 mph (205 km/h) near Buras-Triumph, Louisiana. At landfall, hurricane-force winds extended outward 120 miles (190 km) from the center and the storm's central pressure was 920 mbar. After moving over southeastern Louisiana and Breton Sound, it made its third landfall near the Louisiana/Mississippi border with 120 mph (195 km/h) sustained winds, still at Category 3 intensity.
Although Hurricane Katrina made landfall well to the west, Alabama and the Florida Panhandle were both affected by tropical-storm force winds and a storm surge varying from 12 to 16 ft (3-5 m) around Mobile Bay, with higher waves on top. Sustained winds of 67 mph (107 km/h) were recorded in Mobile, Alabama, and the storm surge there was approximately 12 feet (3.7 m). The surge caused significant flooding several miles inland along Mobile Bay. Four tornadoes were also reported in Alabama. Ships, oil rigs, boats and fishing piers were washed ashore along Mobile Bay: the cargo ship M/V Caribbean Clipper and many fishing boats were grounded at Bayou La Batre.
Greatest rainfall totals caused by a hurricane in Alabama.
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- 1886, Apr. - Highest stage on Alabama River at Montgomery since 1814. This flood primarily affected the Southwest portion of the state.
- 1906, Sept. - Hurricane. Rain, 11 inches, primarily affecting the coastal portion of the state.
- 1916, July - Hurricane. Maximum winds, 128 miles per hour. Record tide, 10.8 feet; rain, 19 inches. Damage, $3.5 million.
- 1926, Sept. - Hurricane. Rain, 19 inches, primarily affecting the coastal portion of the state.
- 1929, Mar. - Flood in the Southeast portion of the state caused $9 million in damages.
- 1936 - Floods in the West portion of the state.
- 1961, Feb. - Mar. - Record-breaking discharges and stages; record duration. Damage, $36 million.
- 1969, Aug. - Hurricane Camille, primarily affecting the coastal portion of the state.
- 1970, Mar. - Isolated in greater Birmingham area.
- 1973, Mar. - Apr. - Covered about one-third of State.
- 1979, Mar. - Apr. - Severe in Tombigbee River basin. Some peak discharges were twice that of 100-year recurrence interval. Damage, $75 million.
- 1979, Sept. - Hurricane Frederic, primarily affecting the coastal portion of the state. Damage, $2 billion.
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Last Update: March 10, 2011