Historic Markers Across Alabama



The Second Creek War in the Eufaula Area



Marker ID:  
Location: East Broad Street, Eufaula, AL
County: Barbour
Coordinates: N 31° 53.599    W 085° 8.404
  31.89331666    -85.14006666
Style: Interpretative Sign **
Waymark: None
 



Text:

The Second Creek War in the Eufaula Area
—Creek Heritage Trail —


In 1836 long-simmering tensions between Creeks and American settlers erupted into warfare. The Creeks, crowded onto the last portion of their ancestral homeland and witnessing the rampant theft of their lands, had also become subject to harsh laws limiting their travel and employment. Some resorted to plundering settler plantations for food and supplies. Several isolated incidents of violence between Creeks and settlers occurred early in 1836, including the murder of some Creeks from the village of Eufaula by residents of Georgia. A portion of the desperate Creeks determined to strike back, resulting in the Second Creek War.




Some of the first actions of the war occurred just north of Irwinton. Rebel Creeks attacked the community of Glennville in early May, 1836 and on May 15th destroyed Roanoke, Georgia a few miles up river from Irwinton. Some of the survivors of the ambush fled to Irwinton afterward. By the
time General William Irwin and a battalion of militia arrived in the area to restore order, the town was nearly deserted. Irwin sent out an urgent request for volunteers to assemble there. General John W. Moore arrived shortly afterwards and was placed in command of all forces in the Irwinton area. In June Moore launched a prolonged raid on rebel Creek strongholds in Barbour and Russell counties. Later that month, General Winfield Scott's troops arrived and marched north in search of any remaining hostile Creeks. He declared the war over a few days later. While fighting around Irwinton was at an end, the war actually continued for nearly another year.



[Top left map caption]


Barbour County during the first phase of the Second Creek War, summer 1836

From The Second Creek War: Interethnic Conflict and Collusion on a Collapsing Frontier, by John T. Ellisor

Courtesy of the University of Nebraska Press



[Bottom left photo captions]


Alabama Governor Clement C. Clay ordered troops to Irwinton after the attack on Glennville

Courtesy of the Alabama Department of Archives and History



Jim Boy, an Upper Creek chief, commanded allied Creeks that fought with the American armies in this area.

Courtesy of the Alabama Department of Archives and History




[Right side photo captions]


The Smartt-Parker-Comer House was built on the site of a log stockade constructed by residents of Irwinton during the Second Creek War, and incorporates parts of the fort's walls in its design.



Troops from Irwinton were involved in several Second War battles. Especially prominent was the Wellborn family. William Wellborn, leader of the "Barbour Rangers" militia unit, became the most celebrated local military figure of the war. He rode his popularity to election to the Alabama State Senate in 1837. His teenage son, James, was killed while fighting alongside him at the Battle of Pea River. William's brother, Dr. Levi T. Wellborn, also led troops during the war. Dr. Wellborn's home (above) still stands in Eufaula.

Image courtesy of the Library of Congress




[Right side newspaper article caption]


Columbus Enquirer article of July 21, 1836 about the premature celebration of the end of the war in Irwinton


2015 by the Historic Chattahoochee Commission and the Friends of the Yoholo Micco Heritage Trail.



Notes:

See HMDM.org for photos of this marker.



End of The Second Creek War in the Eufaula Area