Historic Markers Across Tennessee



Fort Dickerson / Defending Knoxville



Marker ID:  
Location: on Fort Dickerson Rd west of Chapman Hwy SW, Knoxville, TN
County: Knox
Coordinates: N 35° 56.9    W 083° 54.95
  35.94833333    -83.91583333
Waymark: None
 



Text:

Fort Dickerson
Defending Knoxville



On November 4, 1863, Confederate Gen. James Longstreet led two reinforced divisions from Chattanooga to attack Union Gen. Ambrose E. Burnside's garrison at Knoxville. Burnside confronted Longstreet below Knoxville, then withdrew on November 12. Longstreet followed, besieging the city. In Chattanooga, Union Gen. Ulysses S. Grant's army defeated Confederate Gen. Braxton Bragg's forces at the end of the month. Grant ordered Gen. William T. Sherman to reinforce Burnside. Longstreet withdrew on December 4, as Sherman's 25,000 men approached. Sherman soon rejoined Grant.
By late in 1863, the Union army had turned Knoxville into one of the most fortified cities in the country. Chief Engineer Capt. (later Gen.) Orlando M. Poe used civilians and slaves to assist his 300-man engineering battalion, while Union Gen. Ambrose E. Burnside marched south to block Confederate Gen. James Longstreet's approach. On returning, Burnside's men joined in the digging and surrounded the city with 16 forts and batteries, miles of earthworks, and two dams to flood the area just north of Knoxville. Three of the forts - Dickerson, Higley, and Stanley - loomed on the ridges across the Tennessee River.
As Confederate infantry advanced on the river's north side, Longstreet sent 4,000 cavalrymen under Gen. Joseph Wheeler through Maryville and Blount County to capture the heights overlooking the river. Gen. William P. Sanders, however, blocked Wheeler with 1,500 Federal cavalrymen, slowing the Confederate advance and allowing Federal troops time to prepare defenses on what was to become Fort Dickerson. Arriving at the base of the heights on the land side, the Confederate cavalry found the slope too steep and the defenders too numerous for a successful attack. After two tentative assaults, they withdrew and rejoined Longstreet.
On November 25, Confederates attacked earthworks on Armstrong Hill, adjoining the site of Fort Higley, driving the Federals from their trenches. Union troops rallied and forced the Confederates back to their original position on Cherokee Heights. A Confederate diversionary attack took place in this area four days later in conjunction with the attack on Fort Sanders. The Confederate defeat in November 1863 was largely due to Poe's design of Knoxville's extensive fortifications.


Tennessee Civil War Trails.



Notes:

More information:
Wikipedia: Knoxville Campaign
History: The Siege of Knoxville begins